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Diabetes mellitus (Diabetes mellitus) is one of the chronic diseases caused by heredity and lifestyle behavior. From the statistics of diabetes worldwide in 2017, there were 425 million people with diabetes and it is estimated that by 2045 there will be 629 million people with diabetes. Diabetes is a disease in the metabolic syndrome. Alix syndrome, which is a disorder related to the metabolism of the body Long-term hyperglycemia results in health problems that increase the risk of cardiovascular disorders. and will cause chronic complications leading to deterioration and failure of the functioning of important organs such as the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and small arteries. (Microvascular) and large (Macrovascular)
symptoms of diabetes
Diabetic patients with high sugar levels above normal may not have obvious symptoms. A blood test will need to be done for diagnosis. If diabetes is not known for a long time, the patient may detect complications of diabetes. Patients with sugars that are much higher than normal may be symptomatic from high blood sugar or from complications, including:
1. Frequent and heavy urination urinating at night Caused by the leakage of sugar in the urine and draw water out as well.
2. Dry throat, drinking a lot of water, thirsty caused by the loss of water in the urine in large quantities.
3. Frequent hunger, fussy eats, but weight loss is caused by the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Protein and fat are required for energy.
4. The wound is difficult to heal because when there is a skin infection High sugar impairs the function of white blood cells. when there is a wound Therefore, it is difficult to recover and live longer than the general population.
5. Itchy skin easy to infect especially around the vagina of female patients.
6. Blurred vision may be caused by congestion in the eye lens. Diabetic retinopathy or cataracts
Thai herbs and diabetes treatment
1. Turmeric. From the study of the effect of turmeric extract on diabetes. It was found that turmeric extract slowed down the activity of beta cells. which is the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin resulting in better work Accumulated sugar Insulin values improved statistically from before the dosing period. There are very few side effects of the drug, so people who are not sick can help prevent diabetes.
2. Chiang Da. From the study of the hypoglycemic effect of Chiang Da vegetables. animal studies An experiment was conducted by extracting 75% saponin and ethanol from Chiang Da leaves. and triterpenoid compounds isolated from Chiang Da vegetable extracts. Potassium-stimulated guinea pig inhibits the contractile activity of the guinea pig's distal small intestine cells. as a result of inhibiting the introduction of glucose from outside into cells. and measure the electric potential difference The transport of sugar into the cells in the distal duodenum was found to be increased when the chiangda extract was given to the cells. When testing for sugar tolerance The rats were fed glucose solution together with saponin extract. Found that it can reduce blood sugar levels. It has been shown that extracts from chiangda vegetables can interfere with the absorption of sugar in the intestines. resulting in lower blood sugar levels
Bitter gourd whose scientific name is Momordica charantia L. is in the family Cucurbitaceae. Bitter gourd is native to tropical Asia and northern tropical Africa. Bitter gourd can be eaten as food and medicine. Which can be used for both the leaves, fruit and stems. In the past, bitter gourd was eaten to reduce blood sugar levels. Later it was discovered that the main substances in bitter gourd that may have hypoglycemic activity are charantin, momocharin and momordicin. These 3 phytochemicals have a chemical structure similar to that of insulin and are therefore believed to have hypoglycemic effects. blood sugar
Properties of Thai traditional medicine
Bitter gourd has a very bitter taste. Properties of appetite, nourish bile, cure diseases of the spleen and liver, cervical ailments, boiled water to cure fever, juice to cure flaky mouth ulcers and nourish the blood of women's menstruation. and Thai medicine textbooks use bitter gourd leaves in green medicinal formulas. Properties to reduce fever, roots are used in drug recipes to cure septicemia and liver disease.
Bitter gourd is classified as a medicinal plant that is included in the herbal medicine list in the National List of Essential Medicines. in the drug group developed from herbs For use in the treatment of fever, heat in
Bitter gourd research study in diabetes treatment
Study on the effect of bitter melon in the treatment of diabetes: mechanism of action and clinical efficacy. It was found that bitter gourd can stimulate insulin secretion. increased sensitivity to insulin response inhibits glucose uptake inhibit hexokinase enzyme Protects pancreatic cells and inhibits the activity of enzymes used in the process. gluconeogenesis Studies on the hypoglycemic effect of bitter gourd in both laboratory animals and humans have shown that it can lower blood sugar well and does not cause serious adverse reactions.
1.Nattaphong Kosachunnan. MBA. Knowledge of diabetes. (online). Retrieved from: http://www.med.cmu.ac.th/etc/princefund/file/17.pdf. January 14, 2022.
2.Somluck Chuengsaman. 2018. Turmeric for diabetes treatment. (online). Retrieved from:https://mgronline.com/qol/detai
3.Kanokporn Athawongsa. Hypoglycemic effect of chiangda and Gymnema sylvestre. Herbal information brochure.
4. Wiraphol Phimarn and Pawitra Poolbutr. 2019. The effect of bitter gourd in the treatment of diabetes: mechanism of action and clinical efficacy. Thesis, Mahasarakham University.
5.Department of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine 2021. Bitter gourd and its hypoglycemic activity.(online). Retrieved from: https://www.dtam.moph.go.th/images/Trust-NEWS/trust0226 -18062564.pdf